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Dưới đây là tổng hợp các đề thi IELTS Reading thật qua các năm 2021 và 2022 (gần đây nhất). Đề thi IELTS Reading thời gian sắp tới hoàn toàn có thể ra lại giống hệt như các đề thi này, vì thế các bạn cần lưu lại và ôn luyện cho thật kỹ để đạt Band điểm cao nhé!

Đề IELTS Reading 2021

Đề số 1

Instructions to follow

  • You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14 which are based on Reading Passage 1

Biology of Bitterness

To many people, grapefruit is palatable only when doused in sugar. Bitter Blockers like adenosine monophosphate could change that.

A. There is a reason why grapefruit juice is served in little glasses: most people don’t want to drink more than a few ounces at a time. Naringin, a natural chemical compound found in grapefruit, tastes bitter. Some people like that bitterness in small doses and believe it enhances the general flavor, but others would rather avoid it altogether. So juice packagers often select grapefruit with low naringin though the compound has antioxidant properties that some nutritionists contend may help prevent cancer and arteriosclerosis.

B. It is possible, however, to get the goodness of grapefruit juice without the bitter taste. I found that out by participating in a test conducted at the Linguagen Corporation, a biotechnology company in Cranbury, New Jersey. Sets of two miniature white paper cups, labeled 304and 305, were placed before five people seated around a conference table. Each of us drank from one cup and then the other, cleansing our palates between tastes with water and a soda cracker. Even the smallest sip of 304 had grapefruit ‘s unmistakable bitter bite. But 305 was smoother; there was the sour taste of citrus but none of the bitterness of naringin. This juice had been treated with adenosine monophosphate, or AMP, a compound that blocks the bitterness in foods without making them less nutritious.

C. Taste research is a booming business these days, with scientists delving into all five basics-sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami, the savory taste of protein. Bitterness is of special interest to industry because of its untapped potential in food. There are thousands of bitter -tasting compounds in nature. They defend plants by warning animals away and protect animals by letting them know when a plant may be poisonous. But the system isn’t foolproof. Grapefruit and cruciferous vegetable like Brussels sprouts and kale are nutritious despite-and sometimes because of-their bitter-tasting components. Over time, many people have learned to love them, at least in small doses. “Humans are the only species that enjoys bitter taste,” says Charles Zuker, a neuroscientist at the University of California School of Medicine at San Diego. “Every other species is averse to bitter because it means bad news. But we have learned to enjoy it. We drink coffee, which is bitter, and quinine [in tonic water] too. We enjoy having that spice in our lives.” Because bitterness can be pleasing in small quantities but repellent when intense, bitter blockers like AMP could make a whole range of foods, drinks, and medicines more palatable-and therefore more profitable.

D. People have varying capacities for tasting bitterness, and the differences appear to be genetic. About 75 percent of people are sensitive to the taste of the bitter compounds phenylthiocarbamide and 6-n-propylthiouracil. and 25 percent are insensitive. Those who are sensitive to phenylthiocarbamide seem to be less likely than others to eat cruciferous vegetables, according to Stephen Wooding, a geneticist at the University of Utah. Some people, known as supertasters, are especially sensitive to 6-n-propylthiouraci because they have an unusually high number of taste buds. Supertasters tend to shun all kinds of bitter-tasting things, including vegetable, coffee, and dark chocolate. Perhaps as a result, they tend to be thin. They’re also less fond of alcoholic drinks, which are often slightly bitter. Dewar’s scotch, for instance, tastes somewhat sweet to most people. ” But a supertaster tastes no sweetness at all, only bitterness,” says Valerie Duffy, an associate professor of dietetics at the University of Connecticut at Storrs.

E. In one recent study, Duffy found that supertasters consume alcoholic beverages, on average, only two to three times a week, compared with five or six times for the average nontasters. Each taste bud, which looks like an onion, consists of 50 to 100 elongated cells running from the top of the bud to the bottom. At the top is a little clump of receptors that capture the taste molecules, known as tastants, in food and drink. The receptors function much like those for sight and smell. Once a bitter signal has been received, it is relayed via proteins known as G proteins. The G protein involved in the perception of bitterness, sweetness, and umami was identified in the early 1990s by Linguagen’s founder, Robert Margolskee, at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Known as gustducin, the protein triggers a cascade of chemical reactions that lead to changes in ion concentrations within the cell. Ultimately, this delivers a signal to the brain that registers as bitter. “The signaling system is like a bucket brigade,” Margolskee says. “It goes from the G protein to other proteins.”

F. In 2000 Zuker and others found some 30 different kinds of genes that code for bitter-taste receptors. “We knew the number would have to be large because there is such a large universe of bitter tastants,” Zuker says. Yet no matter which tastant enters the mouth or which receptor it attaches to, bitter always tastes the same to us. The only variation derives from its intensity and the ways in which it can be flavored by the sense of smell. “Taste cells are like a light switch,” Zuker says. “They are either on or off.”

G. Once they figured put the taste mechanism, scientists began to think of ways to interfere with it. They tried AMP, an organic compound found in breast milk and other substances,which is created as cells break down food. Amp has no bitterness of its own, but when put it in foods, Margolskee and his colleagues discovered, it attaches to bitter-taste receptors. As effective as it is, AMP may not be able to dampen every type pf bitter taste, because it probably doesn’t attach to all 30 bitter-taste receptors. So Linguagen has scaled up the hunt for other bitter blockers with a technology called high-throughput screening. Researchers start by coaxing cells in culture to activate bitter-taste receptors. Then candidate substances, culled from chemical compound libraries, are dropped onto the receptors, and scientists look for evidence of a reaction.

H. Tin time, some taste researchers believe, compounds like AMP will help make processed foods less unhealthy. Consider, for example, that a single cup of Campbell’s chicken noodle soup contains 850 milligrams of sodium chloride, or table salt-more than a third of the recommended daily allowance. The salt masks the bitterness created by the high temperatures used in the canning process, which cause sugars and amino acids to react. Part of the salt could be replaced by another salt, potassium chloride, which tends to be scarce in some people’s diets. Potassium chloride has a bitter aftertaste, but that could be eliminated with a dose of AMP. Bitter blockers could also be used in place of cherry or grape flavoring to take the harshness out of children’s cough syrup, and they could dampen the bitterness of antihistamines, antibiotics, certain HIV drugs, and other medications.

I. A number of foodmakers have already begun to experiment with AMP in their products, and other bitter blockers are being developed by rival firms such as Senomyx in La Jolla, California. In a few years, perhaps, after food companies have taken the bitterness from canned soup and TV dinners, they can set their sights on something more useful: a bitter blocker in a bottle that any of us can sprinkle on our brussels sprouts or stir into our grapefruit juice.

Questions 1-8

Instructions to follow

  • The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-I.
  • Which paragraph contains the following information?
  • Write the correct letter A-I, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
  1. Experiment on bitterness conducted
  2. Look into the future application
  3. Bitterness means different information for human and animals
  4. Spread process of bitterness inside of body
  5. How AMP blocks bitterness
  6. Some bitterness blocker may help lower unhealthy impact
  7. Bitterness introduced from a fruit
  8. Genetic feature determines sensitivity

Question 9-12


Instructions to follow

  • Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet.

The reason why grapefruit tastes bitter is because a substance called _______contained in it. However, bitterness plays a significant role for plants. It gives a signal that certain plant is ___________. For human beings, different person carries various genetic abilities of tasting bitterness. According to a scientist at the University of Utah, _______ have exceptionally plenty of __________, which allows them to perceive bitter compounds.

Questions 13 – 14

Instructions to follow

  • Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
  • Write your answers in boxes 13-14 on your answer sheet.
  1. What is the main feature of AMP according to this passage?
  2. offset bitter flavour in food
  3. only exist in 304 cup
  4. tastes like citrus
  5. chemical reaction when meets biscuit
  6. What is the main function of G protein?
  7. collecting taste molecule
  8. identifying different flavors elements
  9. resolving large molecules
  10. transmitting bitter signals to the brain

Đề số 2

Instructions to follow

  • You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2

Franklin’s Lost Expedition

A. What could have resulted in the deaths of 129 men and officers aboard the ship in Franklin’s lost expedition? The fate of the ship remains a topic of investigation, still intriguing to some international researchers of today. Sir John Franklin and his crew set sail from England in 1845 in search of the Northwest Passage, a sea route that was rumored to connect the continents of Europe and Asia. Two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, headed the expedition. Franklin’s wife, Lady Jane Franklin, had become worried after three years without any communication from the expedition. She then persuaded the government to begin investigating. The sites of the three first search efforts were Lancaster Sound, the Bering Strait and over land beginning at the Mackenzie River.

B. All of these searches, as well as others that followed were unsuccessful in discovering the fate of the crew. Lady Franklin began her own search in 1851, but about a year later, these searches led by McClure and Collinson and their crews also turned up missing. Collinson eventually found his way back to England, while McClure was found and returned back in 1854. That same year, searcher John Rae reported to the Admiralty that according to Inuit information and some discovered items, it seemed that Franklin and the crew had perished. In a desperate last attempt to survive, some may have even taken up cannibalism. Rae was given what would be about $400,000 Canadian dollars today as a reward. Therefore, it appeared that Admiralty would not pursue any further search efforts.

C. However, Lady Franklin did not give up there, and in 1857 she began commissioning another search with Leopold McClintock as its leader. It was McClintock who found many corpses on King William Island, along with a journal which outlined the journey of Franklin’s two ships, Erebus and Terror. On May 1847, it seemed according to the journal that the ships were stuck in ice. Even so, there should have been enough food supplies onboard the ships to last three years. “All well,” said the note. Another note from April 25, 1848 made the situation appear more dire. Apparently, the ships had remained stuck in ice for over a year, with several men abandoning the expedition within the days before.

D. Researchers, scientists and historians have continued to ponder this mystery for over 160 years. What had happened which had caused the men to abandon ship, rather than wait for the ice to melt? The Northwest Passage is well-known for its harsh weather and constantly changing sea ice. To the west King William Island, particularly strong gusts of wind howl over layers of thick ice, formed over periods of hundreds of years. How long did the ice trap Franklin’s two unfortunate ships so that they could not move?

E. Investigators and researchers continue looking for answers to these questions regarding Franklin’s lost expedition, attempting to explain what happened to the captain and his crew. From American explorer Charles Francis Hall in 1860-1863, to Frederick Schwatka in 1879, as well as the Canadian government’s search in 1930 and William Gibson’s search a year later, some hints were found in the form of human remains, Inuit information and discovered items, but no certain conclusions could be reached. In 1981, along the western coast of King William Island, the University of Alberta-led Franklin Expedition Forensic Anthropology Project dug up human remains. Forensic testing at the time suggested that the cause of death was likely either lead poisoning and scurvy. Lead poisoning has continued to persist as a possible explanation for the loss of the expedition since then. However, proving this is not so simple, as surgeons’ journals (the “sick books”) which recorded illness on board have yet to be found.

F. Still without Franklin sick books, a team of researchers from the University of Glasgow took up a study of the sick books of Royal Naval ships which were searching for Franklin. The search ships were equipped similarly, with the same provisions as Franklin’s vessels, therefore the team looked over the illnesses and fatalities within the search crews under the assumption that the conditions suffered by those crews could mirror those of the lost expedition.

G. Due to relatively high levels of lead found in some remains of the crew, it has been suggested that lead poisoning from solder that sealed the expedition’s canned provisions could explain the lost expedition. However, within the other search ships who had similar provisions, no evidence of lead poisoning was found, despite the relatively high exposure to lead that was unavoidable on ships of the era and within the overall British population. So, unless Franklin’s ships had a particular lead source, there is no substantial proof that lead poisoning had a role in the failed expedition. Across nine search crews, patterns in illnesses led researchers to conclude that Franklin’s men would have suffered the same respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, injuries and exposure, and that some fatalities might have been a result of respiratory, cardiovascular and tubercular conditions. Moreover, the team suggested that the abnormally high number of deaths of Franklin’s officers was probably a result of non-medical circumstances such as accidents and injuries that happened when officers accepted the risky responsibility of hunting animals to provide food, or walking over difficult terrain in a severe climate, continuing their attempts at finding the route of a Northwest Passage.

H. It seems possible that the 2016 discovery by the Arctic Research Foundation made recently in the wreck of HMS Terror, along with a discovery two years before in 2014 of HMS Erebus by Parks Canada could finally allow access to some first-hand evidence of medical issues and other factors at play in the failed expedition. If any of the expedition’s records in writing have been preserved on board, it’s possible they could still be read if they were left in the right underwater conditions. If a ‘sick book’ has managed to survive aboard a ship, the events that led to the lost expedition may be revealed, allowing those speculating to finally get some closure on the matter.

Questions 15-21

Instructions to follow

  • Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? In boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet, write
  • TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this.
  1. Franklin’s lost expedition was a search party attempting to find Lady Jane Franklin
  2. John Rae suspected that Franklin’s lost expedition likely suffered from a food shortage aboard the ship
  3. The leaders of the search parties commissioned by Lady Franklin returned to England after some time
  4. It was common for people living Britain during the 19th century to be exposed to lead
  5. Most of the crew aboard Franklin’s lost expedition were trained to hunt wild animals
  6. The most recent research from University of Glasgow suggests that some of leaders of the crew on the Franklin expedition died from lead poisoning.
  7. The research into the wreck of HMS Terror may shed light on the mystery of the lost expedition.

Questions 22-26

Instructions to follow

  • Complete the sentences below.
  • Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
  • Write your answers in 22-26 on your answer sheet.

The Northwest Passage is a route which connects __________by sea.

As a reward for seemingly having discovered the fate of the Franklin expedition, 23__________ was given an amount that would equal hundreds of thousands of Canadian dollars today.

Forensic testing available in the 80’s suggested that either 24 __________ or lead poisoning led to the deaths of the crew in the Franklin expedition.

The 25 ______________ made by doctors aboard the ships in the Franklin expedition still have not been recovered.

Researchers have suggested that the leaders of Franklin’s crew might not have been ill, but could have died from 26 _______________ as a result of their behaviours.

Tải toàn bộ bộ đề thi IELTS Reading 2021 tại đây.

Đề IELTS Reading 2022

Đề số 1

Instructions to follow

  • You should spend 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1

Growing of the Aging Society

A. American scientists say that the elderly are now healthier, happier and more independent. The results of a study that has taken place over a 14-year period will be released at the end of the month. The research will show that common health disorders suffered by the elderly are affecting fewer people and happening after in life.

B. Over the last 14 years, The National Long-term Health Care Survey has gathered data from more than 20,000 males and females over the age of 65 about their health and lifestyles. The group has analysed the results of data gathered in 1994 on conditions such as arthritis, high blood pressure and poor circulation; these were the most common medical complaints for this age group. The results show that these conditions are troubling a smaller proportion of people each year and decreasing very quickly. Other diseases suffered by the elderly including dementia, emphysema and arteriosclerosis are also affecting fewer people.

C. According to Kenneth Manton, a demographer from Duke University in North Carolina, “the question of what should be considered normal ageing has really changed.” He also mentioned that diseases suffered by many people around the age of 65 in 1982 are now not occurring until people reach the age of 70-75.

D. It is clear that due to medical advances some diseases are not as prominent as they used to be. However, there were also other factors influencing this change. For instance, improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century gave many people a better start in life than was possible before.

E. The data also shows some negative changes in public health. The research suggests that the rise of respiratory conditions such as lung cancer and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and an increase in air pollution. Manton says that as we have been exposed to worse and worse pollution, it is not surprising that some people over the age of 60 are suffering as a result.

F. Manton also found that better-educated people are likely to live longer. For instance, women of 65 with less than eight years of education are expected to live to around 82. Those who studied more could be able to live seven years longer. Whilst some of this can be attributed to better-educated people usually having a higher income, Manton believes it is mainly because they pay closer attention to their health.

G. Also, the survey estimated how independent people of 65 were and found a striking trend. In the 1994 survey, almost 80% of them were able to complete activities such as eating and dressing alone as well as handling difficult tasks, like cooking and managing their financial affairs. This situation indicates an important drop among disabled elderly people in the population. If 14 years ago, the apparent trends in the US had continued, researchers believe that there would be one million disabled elderly people in today’s population. Manton shows the trend saved more than $200 billion for the US’s government’s Medicare system, and it has suggested the elderly American population is less of a financial burden than expected.

H. The growing number of independent elderly people is probably linked to the huge increase in home medical aids. For instance, the research shows the use of raising toilet seat covers and bath seats has increased by more than fifty per cent. Also, these developments about health benefits are reported by the MacArthur Foundation’s research group for successful ageing. It found the elderly who are able to take care of themselves were more likely to stay healthy in their old age.

I. Retaining a certain level of daily physical activity may also help brain function, according to Carl Cotman, a neuroscientist at the University of California at Irvine. He found that rats exercising on a treadmill have higher levels of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor in their brains. He believes the hormone which holds neuron functions may prevent the active human’s brain function from declining.

J. Teresa Seeman, a social epidemiologist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, was conducting the same research. She found a line between self-esteem and stress in people over 70. The elderly who do challenging activities such as driving have more control of their mind and have a lower level of the stress hormone cortisol in their brains. Chronically high levels of this hormone can cause heart disease.

K. However, an independent life may have negative points. Seeman knew that the elderly people that were living alone were able to retain higher levels of stress hormones even when sleeping. The research indicates that elderly people are happier if they can live an independent life but also acknowledge when they need help.

L. Seeman says, “With many cases of research about ageing, these results help common sense.” Also, the situations show that we may be ignoring some of the simple factors. She mentions, “The sort of thing your grandmother always used to talk to you about seems to be exactly right.”

Questions 1-6

Instructions to follow

  • Reading Passage 1 has twelve paragraphs, A-L.
  • Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.

List of Headings

i. Disorders strike much later in life.

ii. Drawbacks in public health.

iii. Longevity based on high education.

iv. The elderly people of today got better nutrition when they were children.

v. The elderly are becoming more well off.

vii. Most of independent people over 65 complete activities themselves.

vii. Diseases have decreased recently. 1. Paragraph B 2. Paragraph C 3. Paragraph D 4. Paragraph E 5. Paragraph F 6. Paragraph G

Questions 7-13

Instructions to follow

  • Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
  • TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
  1. Smoking habits are a crucial cause in some cancers.
  2. The better-educated elderly people tend to live longer.
  3. People over 65 can independently manage a variety of tasks.
  4. Elderly people have overcome dementia as a result of home medical aids.
  5. Continuing physical exercises is likely to assist digestive function.
  6. People over 70 who still do challenging things such as driving are able to lower their level of the hormone cortisol which is linked to heart disease.
  7. Isolation may cause a higher level of stress hormones.

Đề số 2

Electric Dreams

A. The days of the internal-combustion are numbered, and the fuel cell represents the future of automotive transport, says PETER BREWER. A. Some of the world’s greatest inventions have been discovered by accident. One such accident led to the discovery of the fuel cell and another led to its commercialisation. And in around 30 years, when most of the energy analysts have predicted the oil wells will run dry, motorists will be thankful for both these strange twists of fate. Why? Simply because without the fuel cell to replace the combustion engine, private motoring as we all know it would be restricted to only those who could afford the high price.

B. The exact date of the discovery of the fuel cell is not known, but historians agree it most likely occurred around 1938 in the laboratories of British physicist Sir William Grove, who one day disconnected a simple electrolytic cell (in which hydrogen and oxygen are produced when water contacts an electric current running through a platinum wire) and reversed the flow of current. As author records in his book Powering the Future, Grove realized that just as he could use electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen it should be possible to generate electricity by combining these two gases.

C. The principle behind the fuel cell is simple. Hydrogen and oxygen, two of the most common elements in the world, are a very explosive combination. But separate them with a sophisticated platinum coated barrier and an electro chemical reaction takes place, where positively charged hydrogen ions react with oxygen and leave the hydrogen electrons behind. It is this reaction, the excess electrons on one side of the barrier and the deficit of electrons on the other that creates electrical energy.

D. The early development of the fuel cell was fraught with problems and high cost. But by 1954 US giant General Electric had produced a prototype that proved sufficiently effective to interest NASA. The Gemini space programme proved the viability of the fuel cell to provide electrical power. The spacecraft used six stacks of cells with three cells in each stack. The electrical power output from each stack was quite modest – just one kilowatt and as a byproduct, produced half a litre of water for each kilowatt hour of operation. But the Gemini Cells were very unstable and required constant monitoring.

E. At this time if anyone had suggested to Canadian Scientist Geoffrey Ballard that he would become a world leader in fuel cell technology, he would have laughed. Ballard’s scientific background was actually geophysics, but during the oil-crisis of 1973, the US government asked the Canadian to explore alternative forms of energy. Ballard threw himself into the project enthusiastically but soon became disillusioned by the politics of the programme. Energy systems take a long time to develop, Ballard said. The short-term vision of politicians, who voted to fund such projects in the desire for quick results to bolster their re-election chances, were frustrating for the scientists. However, since the US government lacked the vision for the job, he decided to tackle it himself.

F. The big breakthrough on Ballard’s fuel cell came by accident in the search for cheaper materials. Up until late 1986, Ballard’s team had worked with only one type of fuel cell membrane manufactured by DuPont, but Dow Chemical had also developed a similar membrane, which had not been released for sale. Ballard’s team tracked down an experimental sample of the Dow material, put it into a fuel cell and set up a standard test. Within a few minutes the fuel cell was generating so much electricity on the test bench that it had melted through the power-output cable.

G. Ballard immediately knew he had a saleable product. The problem was: Should he aim his fuel cell at small markets like military field generators, wheelchairs and golf carts, or try to sell it as a full blown alternative to the combustion engine? “It was so needed and the world was ready for it,” Ballard said. “Los Angeles is dying; Vancouver is going to be eaten alive by its own pollution very shortly. It seemed like a time to go for broke.” Ballard Power Systems first built a small bus to demonstrate the technology, and then an even bigger bus.

H. As a result a number of multinational motor manufacturers, such as General Motors, Mitsubishi and Daimler-Benz all tested Ballard’s cells. Finally, Daimler formed an alliance with Ballard that has yielded some impressive prototypes, including a fully driveable fuel cellpowered A-class Mercedes-Benz compact car, known as Necar 4. Daimler Chlysler, as the merged Daimler-Benz and Chlysler Corporation is now known, says the fuel cell represents the future of automotive transport. “The significance of this technological advancement ( the fuel cell) is comparable to the impact the microchip had on computer technology when it replaced the transistor,” said Dr Ferdinand Panik, the head of Daimler Chlysler’s fuel cell development team.

Questions 14 – 21

Instructions to follow

  • There are 8 paragraphs numbered A-H in Reading Passage 2.
  • From the list below numbered i- x, choose a suitable heading for the paragraphs.
  • There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all the headings.

14. Paragraph A

15. Paragraph B

16. Paragraph C

17. Paragraph D

18. Paragraph E

19. Paragraph F

20. Paragraph G

21. Paragraph H

i. A conflict of interests

ii. Science is sometimes a question of luck

iii. Using the fuel cell in different ways

iv. How does it work?

v. Deciding how to exploit the new product

vi. Using the fuel cell to be the first in the space race

vii. A key stage in the development of fuel cell

viii. A first step on the road to a new source of energy

ix. Applying the new technology on a global scale

x. The first fuel cell is tested

Questions 22-24

Instructions to follow

  • Choose the most appropriate letter A B C or D.

22. The fuel cell generates electricity because

A. hydrogen and oxygen can be used to create controlled explosions

B. of the reaction which occurs when

C. hydrogen and oxygen are separated hydrogen and oxygen are both gases

D. hydrogen and oxygen both contain electrons

23. The Gemini space programme demonstrated that

A. The fuel cell was too difficult to use in space programmes

B. The fuel cell can only work with pure oxygen

C. Generating a substantial amount of electricity requires many fuel cells

D. The fuel cell could be used successfully

24. The US government asked Ballard to carry out fuel cell research because

A. He was an expert in his field

B. supplies of oil were running out

C. They wanted to find new sources of energy

D. He offered to work completely independently.

Questions 25-27

Instructions to follow

  • Complete the sentences below by taking words from the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.

25. The key step in the development of fuel cell occurred completely _________________.

26. Ballard decided that the fuel cell could be used to reduce ____________in large cities. 27.

27. In an attempt to produce a more ecological car, Ballard _____________with a major automobile corporation.

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